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Pictures 5

Page history last edited by Béatrice H. Alves 7 years, 4 months ago

Picture 5 

  • How would you describe them?
  • What could you tell on the topic?


Picture Description Process (suggestion)

1) Describe the picture in one sentence, give only the most important information at this stage. Use; This is a picture of ...


2) Describe the details in the picture, start with the most important details and then the less important ones. This is a good opportunity to use lots of vocabulary and show the examiner what you know.


3) Make deductions about what you can't see in the picture. Often this relates to part 2, when you describe details you can make deductions at the same time. Use the language of speculation (this could/ might be etc...)

Deductions often relate to; passengers (where they are & how they feel), the cause of the incident/ situation, what you think is going to happen next, the weather and how it influenced the situation. How the situation you describe will affect the area around it (the airport usually).


A little vocabulary to help?

 What kind of damage? 

bogged down - cut - flat - scratched - broken - damaged - frozen - smoking - broken down - defective - inoperative (inop) - seeping - burst - deflated - jammed - leaking - spilled - collapsed - dented - lost - stuck - missing - twisted - contaminated - faulty - overflowing

unserviceable (U/S) - cracked - shattered - on fire - overheated - worn 

How bad is it?

very dented? quite dented? rather dented? slightly dented? hardly dented? severely dented? a little dented?...




Runway excursion 1

On 16 October 2008, a Rutaca Boeing 737-200, registered YV162T, landed on runway 28R at Caracas-Simón Bolívar International Airport (CCS) following a domestic flight from Puerto Ordaz (PZO). After touchdown the airplane swerved to the left. The nose came to rest on the runway embankment.[


Runway Excursion 2 **

Read about it on Aviation Herald

Get more information on runway excursion prevention

a)     What threats should be taken intro consideration when a pilot has a nose gear collapse?

b)     What is the relation between nose gear collapse and runway excursion?

c)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement: ¨hard landings can cause landing gear collapse and can lead to a runway excursion¨.

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Tailstrike 1

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Tailstrike 2 *

You can grab some vocabulary by reading about this tail strike in the Aviation Herald


Tailstrike 3 **


If you own "Check your aviation English", take a look at unit 19.

For more go to the Take off page 

Describe a take-off incident you know of.

What do pilots consider when planning a take-off?

What things do ATCs consider when managing departing traffic?

What problems are associated with incorrect weight and balance?

What other problems can occur at take-off?

A)     Under what circumstances could this have happened?

B)     Can you imagine improvements that could prevent a tail-strike in the future?

C)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement ¨it is difficult to identify a cause for tail-strikes once there are a lot of factors involved.


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Ground movements

Describe a ground movement accident you've had or know of.

What do you think are the major causes of ground movement accidents?

What can be done to reduce taxiway accidents?

What technology exists to help reduce the number of accidents on the ground?

Do you think the incidence of ground movement accidents will increase or decrease in the future? Why?

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Airfields: for or against?

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Birdstrike **

For more go to the birdstrike page

Describe a birdstrike incident you know of.

Why do birds inhabit airfield environments?

What measures can airports use to control birds?

What sort of damage can birdstrikes do to aircraft?

Do you think birdstrike incidents will increase or decrease? Why?

a)     What would be your major concern if you faced the same situation?

b)     What strategies could be developed to prevent bird strikes?

c)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement: ¨the problem of bird-strikes is associated with governmental issues that go beyond aviation ¨.


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De-icing/Anti-icing *


Deicing 2**


More on deicing here.
If you want to know more about Cold Weather Operation, take a look at this ebook by Airbus: Getting to the grips with Cold Weather Operation
How about some new techniques to reduce cost and impact on environment, such as infrared de-icing?

Is icing an issue where you work or fly? Why? Why not?

What meteorological conditions lead to icing?

Why is ice accretion a problem?

What equipment do aircraft have to manage icing?

What do pilots typically do if they experience severe icing in flight?

A)     What actions would you take before landing if you faced a similar scenario?

B)     How can de-icing procedures affect airport operation and crews’ tasks?

C)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement: ¨New technologies in the deicing liquids should be developed to reduce the environmental impact¨. 

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Engines **

Fir more on engines go there and for more on the future of engines and airplane go there.

a)     What could have caused this situation?

b)     Do you foresee improvements in the technology in the future that will be to prevent engine fire?

c)     To what extend do you agree or disagree with this statement: ¨if the crew members hadn’t had the adequate training they could have unnecessarily shut the wrong engine down¨.

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On the road 1 **

Read about this event here.
Here is a link to the top ten causes of the fatal GA accidents

On Road Landing take a look at this page

a)     Can you imagine improvements in the future that can avoid a similar situation?

b)     Do you think it would be possible for the pilot to take off from this road if he found out the aircraft didn’t have any damage?

c)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement: “Fuel starvation is the most common cause for emergency landings.”

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On the road 2

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Hudson "miracle" 1 **

For more on this "miracle" you can get there

A)     In your opinion what can make a pilot ditch an aircraft?

B)     Is ditching more hazardous on the ocean, a lake or a river? Why?

C)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement: ”Even though the pilot of this aircraft has performed a successful ditching he was not prepared to perform this maneuver because it is impossible to rehearse it completely.”

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Hudson "miracle" 2

Describe a ditching you've had or know of.

What do you think are the major causes of ditchings?

What can be done to minimize the risk after ditching?

What technology exists to help pilots of aircraft who have ditched?

Do you think the incidence of ditchings will increase or decrease in the future? Why?
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Shaken cabin 1 *

About Asiana at San Francisco
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A)     Why is communication between flight attendants and pilots very important during depressurization?

B)     Can you imagine any technological innovation, which can minimize the effects in a situation like this?

C)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement: ¨lack of training of the pilots and flight attendants is the major cause, which can lead to this situation¨. 


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Shaken cabin 2

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At the boneyard*

Looks like this 727 isn't going anywhere soon. This photo is for the 3rd year Aeronautical Engineering Class at Wits! We all got to go flying at HLA, and spent the rest of the afternoon walking around the boneyard. A little bird tells me there may be 1 oxygen mask missing from this aircraft... 


5 things about boneyards

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Damaged radome 1**


For bad weather go there.

a) From you point of view, what should a pilot do to avoid severe weather conditions?

b) How can a hailstorm jeopardize safety of the flight?

c) To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement ¨hail poses a big threat to the aircraft¨.


Damaged radome 2



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Snow **

If you want to know more about Cold Weather Operation, take a look at this ebook by Airbus: Getting to the grips with Cold Weather Operation

A)     Can you tell me about the training for this weather condition?

B)     What is the importance of de-ice?

C)     To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement ¨It is very difficult to figure out if a runway is slippery for takeoff or landing ¨.

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Disruptive passenger

For more go to the Passengers page


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Volcanic ash

For more go to the Volcano page


What are the effects of flying through a volcanic eruption?

What signs may indicate that an aircraft is flying through volcanic ash?

What should pilots do if they encounter volcanic ash?

What effect can a volcanic eruption have on the local environment and community?

What other seismic activity can affect aviation?

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You should try to answer the following questions:

The picture/photo shows …

This is a picture of …

In this picture I can see …

This is an incident that happened …

Where was the picture taken? on the apron, on the runway, on the taxiway, in the air….

If on ground, the kind of airport (big, small,…) – To support your opinion, describe the surroundings (woods, beach,…), the signs and markings (CAT II….), the runway(s), the tower, the vehicles, the people…

If in the air, the phase of the flight (climbing, descending, en route…) – To support your opinion, describe the pitch, the flaps, the gear…

When was the picture taken? after an accident, while the problem was happening…

How is the weather?

What kind of aircraft is it? If you can’t name it/them, describe it/them (engines, body, wings, winglets, tail…., cargo, passenger………)

What part of the aircraft is shown on the picture?

What kind of damage (if any) do you see? (hole, dent, crack…) (severe, light…)

What is happening now? (the aircraft is trying to land…, a ground vehicle is about to cross the runway...)

What has (probably) happened? (They may have gone through a storm. The engine must have ingested a big bird, a vulture for instance.….)

Why, in your opinion, is it happening or did it happen? (due to a rapid decompression, because of a disruptive passenger, in order to recycle the gear…..)


How does it compare to other accidents, incidents… you remember? (It reminds me of the Air France accident…)


What can or should be done about it?  (There shouldn’t be any landfill near the airports…)

What is likely to happen in the future?

Express your opinion (In my opinion,.... I believe.... I think...


Get more ideas here or  by clicking on the picture below


Listen to people describing pictures here, including comparing, contrasting....


In this article we will focus on how to describe the physical structure of a fixed wing aircraft, and also cover some grammatical structures you can use to relate the information.  Of course many pilots will already be familiar with these words but it is worth ensuring that you can use the words with correct grammar, eg prepositions.

Most aircraft have the following major components.

  • fuselage
  • wings
  • empennage
  • landing gear
  • power plant


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