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Page history last edited by Béatrice H. Alves 5 years, 1 month ago


Lexical domain

Approach delays

holding instructions, holding procedures, aerodrome circuit, endurance, diversion/alternate, necessary conditions, CAT III, all-weather landings

Missed approach

go-around, minima, traffic position, endurance, reasons, traffic, procedures, speed

Special conditions on arrival

state of the traffic on the ground, priority flights, industrial action, accidents, weather conditions on the ground, ground equipment failure, airport installations, ground services, curfew, approach procedures

Activities on the field

change of runway and pattern, ramp vehicles, snow clearing, sweeping, mowing, harvesting, closure, opening of runway access roads, runway inspection


noise abatement, departure, approach, all-weather take-off and landing, go-around, holding procedures, land use, curfew, local residents


JFK - Pilot declares emergency

By Glenn Pew, Contributing Editor, Video Editor



The crew of American Airlines Flight 2, a Boeing 767 out of Los Angeles for New York, ultimately declared an emergency while trying to land in strong crosswinds at JFK, May 4, after apparently being denied their runway of choice. Speaking for the JFK Controller union, Steve Abraham told ABC news the pilot "had no choice. He couldn't land 22L, it would have been illegal for him," due to the crosswind. Wind was 320 at 23 gusting to 35, at the time. JFK's main runway, 31 Left, has been closed for upgrades for about eight weeks, and controllers say that maintaining the flow of traffic at the airport has led to some less than ideal clearances. FAA spokesman Arlene Sarlac told AVweb Thursday that the agency studied the situation "for over a year" prior to closing the runway and worked with airlines who "agreed to reduce their schedules during this closure time." The FAA says the situation at JFK is safe. After receiving their clearance, the crew of American Flight 2 said, "We can't land on 22," adding, "We're breaking off approach and if you don't give us to Runway 31R, we're going to declare an emergency." The controller responded "alright, I'll pass it along, fly runway heading for now." At that point, things got more serious.


The pilots immediately responded, "OK we've declared an emergency, we're going to land 31 Right. We're going to the left and then we're coming around." The controller acknowledged the call and told the crew to "just fly runway heading." Exchanges followed and the crew ultimately announced, "Remove everybody from our way. We've declared an emergency." At that point, the controller cleared American Flight 2 for the landing on 31 Right. JFK's 14,572 foot-long 13R/31L, was closed in March to undergo a four-month-long facelift that includes widening and repaving. The closure is expected to last through June and means that traffic must be diverted to the airport's three remaining runways. Controllers say the American Airlines event shows that maintaining the traffic flow, without incurring delays, has presented challenges. According to the FAA, the situation was studied ahead of time, the airlines are flying on reduced schedules and operations at the airport are safe. The FAA is investigating the incident and will "look into all of the air traffic procedures and operations at the time of the incident, as well as the actions of the crew."


Click for audio (MP3 file).


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Unstabilized approach and Go around






Flaps issues

Wrong runway


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Avoid Wrong Surface Landing

Too low

VASP Flight 168 departed Sao Paulo for a flight to Fortaleza, with an intermediate stop at Rio de Janeiro. The first leg of the flight was uneventful. As the flight approached Fortaleza, the crew were cleared to descend from their cruising altitude of FL330 to FL050 (5000ft). In night-time conditions with the bright lights of the city in front, the captain descended below 5000ft. Despite two altitude alert system warnings and the co-pilot's warning of the mountains ahead, the captain continued to descend below the minimum descend altitude. The Boeing then struck a wooded mountainside at 2500ft.


Read about it on Wikipedia or on Tailstrike



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ALS at JFK (Follow the rabbits)

Sequenced flashing lights are sometimes colloquially called the rabbit or the running rabbit.

Read about it on Wikipedia


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Night approach and landing at Los Angeles


ROPS - Runway Overrun Prevention System


Turkish Airlines crash (animation)




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Asiana 214 at San Francisco

Read about it on the Aviation Herald


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Going around on Airbus and Boeing


LionAir lands in the water, short of the runway

Read about it in the Aviation Herald and listen to why it's not considered a ditching on AirSafe.com


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The most plausible sequence of events seems to be a normal approach, slight undershoot and main gear being snapped off by the kerb at the end of the runway.

More about it on PPrune 
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Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771 crash in Tripoli

Read about it on Wikipedia or on Aviation Herald


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Colgan 3407 - Pilot's fatigue in Buffalo

Read about it here or on Aviation Herald


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Collision with SUV

A Cessna 172 and an SUV crashed into one another at Northwest Regional Airport (52F) as the Skyhawk prepared to land at the private airfield in Roanoke, Texas.

As seen in the footage – captured by the Skyhawk pilot’s onlooking wife – the 172’s undercarriage sliced through the top of the Volvo SUV as it drove into the airplane while on a private road that runs perpendicular to Runway 17 – which lies just feet away.


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Pakistan Airlines Going around

Read about it on Flying Magazine


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Heavy rain in final


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Safe Integration

Drone on the radome

A LAM Linhas Aereas de Mocambique Boeing 737-700, registration C9-BAQ performing flight TM-136 from Maputo to Tete (Mozambique) with 80 passengers and 6 crew, was on approach to Tete's runway 19 at about 4000 feet when the crew heard a loud bang, no abnormal indications followed. The crew suspecting a bird strike continued the approach for a safe landing.

A post flight examination revealed a drone had impacted the right hand side of the radome. 

Read more about it on the Aviation Herald


Flock of drones

A KLM Embraer ERJ-190, performing flight KL-1904 from Hanover (Germany) to Amsterdam (Netherlands), was on final approach to runway 18C when the crew reported a drone to their right at about 1000 feet just passing about 100 feet underneath their aircraft. The aircraft continued for a safe landing on runway 18C.

A KLM Cityhopper Fokker 70, performing flight KL-1986 from Basel/Mulhouse (Switzerland/France) to Amsterdam (Netherlands), was on final approach to runway 18C when after tower advised of the previous aircraft reporting a drone at about 1000 feet the crew reported drone in sight, the drone was now on their left hand side at about 900 feet. The Fokker 70 continued for a safe landing on runway 18C.

An Easyjet Airbus A319-100, performing flight U2-7926 from Nice (France) to Amsterdam (Netherlands), next on approach to runway 18C, was advised of the previous two arrivals sighting a drone to which the crew reported they were seeing three drones about 2.5nm out causing a perplexed reaction by the controller "You are seeing THREE drones?" The aircraft continued for a safe landing on runway 18C.

The next arrival for runway 18C, being advised of the three previous flights sighting drones, reported they could not see any drones joking this might be because of their bad eyes.

On Apr 14th 2016 Dutch police announced, that two men, aged 36 and 44, have been identified to have flown their drones into the approach path of Schiphol Airport's runway 18C on April 1st 2016, following a tip off by park rangers who saw the drones operating in the area on Apr 1st 2016 and saw the men operating their drones, obviously monitoring the drones through on board video cameras and glasses.


Listen to the communications between Pilots and Controllers

DRONES @ EHAM _EHAM-Twr-Main2-Apr-01-2016-0930Z.mp3  


Read more about it on the Aviation Herald


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Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS)




 A Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is one which provides differential corrections and integrity monitoring of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data using as input data either three or four GNSS satellite signals received at three of four antennae. The differential correction message computed from this data is then continually broadcast omni-directionally (twice every second) by a ground transmitter using a VHF frequency broadcast (VDB) which is effective within an approximate 23 nm radius of the host airport. GBAS is used primarily used to facilitate GNSS-based precision approaches which are more flexible in design than is possible with ILS. Whilst the main goal of GBAS is to provide signal integrity, it also increases signal accuracy, with demonstrated position errors of less than one meter in both the horizontal and vertical plane. One GBAS Ground Station at an airport supports aircraft approach and landing to multiple runway ends as well as departures from multiple runways and surface movement for all GBAS-equipped aircraft.


Augmentation of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a method of improving –“augmenting”– the navigation system's performances, such as integritycontinuityaccuracy or availability thanks to the use of external information to the GNSS into the user position solution[1][2].

A Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is a civil-aviation safety-critical system that supports local augmentation –at airport level– of the primary GNSS constellation(s) by providing enhanced levels of service that support all phases of approach, landing, departure and surface operations. While the main goal of GBAS is to provide integrity assurance, it also increases the accuracy with position errors below 1 m (1 sigma).

Read more about it on Navipedia or Skybrary 


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RNAV approach


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RNP-based approach


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Time Based Separation


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Synthetic Vision

Synthetic vision provides situational awareness to the operators by using terrain, obstacle, geo-political, hydrological and other databases. A typical SVS application uses a set of databases stored on board the aircraft, an image generator computer, and a display. Navigation solution is obtained through the use of GPS and intertial reference systems.

Read more about it on Wikipedia


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Vision Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS)


A recently updated US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ruling will allow airlines to operate in almost all visibility conditions with the assistance of Elbit Systems’ Clear Vision Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS).

Elbit explains that its EFVS is aligned with the most updated ruling released by the FAA, enabling the pilot to perform a full landing procedure with no natural vision.

The company says its EFVS will have an effect in three major visibility conditions: it will allow take off when the visibility in the destination is under the minimal; it will allow the start of an approach procedure to an airport in which the visibility in under the minima; and it will enable the release of an approach ban caused by very low visibility.

According to Dror Yahav, vice-president of commercial aviation for Elbit’s aerospace division, the EFVS was designed with a forward-thinking approach consistent with the recently updated FAA ruling.


Read more about it on the Aviation Voice



Blinded by laser

ABC Entertainment News|ABC Business News

The FBI is offering up to a $10,000 reward for information that leads to the conviction of any individual engaged in laser illuminations of aircraft in the United States.”

Reports of aircraft laser illuminations in the United States have increased sharply over the past few years—from 2,836 in 2010 to 3,960 in 2013. ALPA successfully urged lawmakers to make laser illuminations of aircraft a specific federal crime, and it is now punishable by a fine of up to $250,000 and up to five years’ imprisonment. In addition to these criminal penalties, the FAA also has the ability to impose civil fines of up to $11,000 per laser incident.

The campaign will raise awareness of aircraft laser-illumination threats via public service announcements, billboards, and press releases. A number of these events will also feature ALPA pilots and law enforcement officials. You can view several publications related to this issue at ALPA’s laser threat awareness campaign website here.

Read more about it on ALPA's page


Laser Pointer Gets 14 Years


A 26-year-old California man has been sentenced to 14 years in prison for pointing a laser at a police helicopter that was responding to a report of his previous attack on a medevac helicopter. Defense lawyers argued Sergio Patrick Rodriquez, of Clovis in central California, was just goofing around with his kids when he shined the laser at the aircraft. Prosecutors argued he did it on purpose. "This is not a game," U.S. Attorney Benjamin B. Wagner is quoted by The Associated Press as saying. "It is dangerous and it is a felony." Rodriquez's girlfriend, 23-year-old Jennifer Coleman, has also been convicted of felony charges and could end up in jail for five years when she is sentenced in May.

The Air Line Pilots Association applauded the stiff sentence, noting that emergency responders are more vulnerable to laser attacks because they fly at low altitudes. “ALPA applauds the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), The Eastern District of California U.S. District Court, and the Clovis and Fresno Police Departments for their vigilance in the investigation and conviction of this case," the union said in a news release. "ALPA has collaborated with the FBI and local law enforcement to launch a nationwide campaign that raises awareness about the severity of illegal laser attacks on aircraft." There were 3,960 reported incidents of laser attacks on aircraft in 2013.

Read the complete article on AV Web


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Airbus to test windscreen anti-laser film

Jun 04 2014 -- Filed in: Anti-laser protection | Ways to reduce incidents | Updated story

Airbus will be testing a film said to reflect laser light, from Halifax-area manufacturer Lamda Guard. The announcement came at a June 4 2014 press conference jointly held by the two companies.

Lamda Guard’s “metaAir” film uses metamaterials, also called nano-composites, to reflect one or more laser colors without interfering with normal visibility. According to the company, the film can protect from beam angles up to +/- 50 degrees away from head-on. This has benefits when protecting cockpits against laser strikes, which can come from any angle.

It can be adhesively applied to glass or clear plastic; applications include eyewear, protective goggles and windscreens. Lamda Guard says that the Airbus tests on windscreens will mark the first time an optical metamaterial nano-composite has been applied on a large-scale surface.

metaAir small

Read all about it on Laser Pointer Safety



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Kites and Balloons


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Air Europa - Low approach

Damaged B737-800, without engines after extremely low approach


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Emergency landing

FULL EMERGENCY LANDING at LHR. This 747F was onroute to Germany when one engine was shut down due to fire. A second engine then began to run rough so a full emergency "any runway landing" was declared. A spectacular approach was made as the aircraft did an S type manouvre dropping from almost double the glidepath.. A superb display from the pilot and the plane landed safely !!!! 27R EGLL (Fuji Finepix S7000)


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Ingestion during approach

Flight 1761 from San Jose,Costa Rica.Bird ingestion during approach.Landed on runway 22L without any other complications.


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Missed approach


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Missing canoe fairing

BAW0009 from London and Bangkok on final approach to Runway 16R. The left inboard flap has lost a canoe fairing somewhere! That's what CDLs are for!


Laser Illumination


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Unstabilized final approach

Learjet G-MURI departed Farnborugh at 11:22 GMT for a flight to Nice. At 12:22 GMT, during cruise flight at FL390, no. 1 engine problems forced the crew to shut it down. The captain then radioed: "Mayday Mayday Mayday Nex four Bravo we’ve lost an engine at flight level three nine zero and we’re in the descent". Air traffic control suggested a diversion to Lyon-Satolas. The aircraft was positioned for a runway 36L ILS approach. At the end of the unstabilized final approach, the airplane descended a little bit below the glide slope. Significant power was then added on the no. 2 engine, following which the aircraft banked to the left causing the wing to touch the ground. The aircraft crashed next to the runway and caught fire. PROBABLE CAUSE: "The accident resulted from a loss of yaw and then roll control which appears to be due to the failure to monitor flight symmetry at the time of the thrust increase on the right engine. The hastiness exhibited by the captain and his difficulty in coping with the stress following the engine failure, contributed to this situation."


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Approach in Stormy Weather


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Missed approach -Flight Safety Foundation studies Go-arounds (Podcast) 

By Russ Niles, Editor-in-Chief


Podcast Index | How to Listen | Subscribe Via RSS



They're supposed to be the action a pilot takes to avoid an unsafe condition, but missed approaches and go-arounds too often result in accidents. The Flight Safety Foundation is trying to find out why, and AVweb's Russ Niles spoke with the foundation's Kevin Hiatt.


This podcast is brought to you by Avidyne and WxWorx XM WX Satellite Weather.



Want to save this podcast and listen later? Click here for the MP3 file.



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